Primary and current references on various aspects of primitive fishes will be listed here.  If you have a reference you think should be listed, please email me at  References should be listed in the format of the American Fisheries Society to maintain consistency.

Publications (updated 11.2.2012)
Clement, A.M. 2012. A new species of long-snouted lungfish from the Late Devonian of Australia, and its functional and biogeographical implications. Palaeontology 55: 51–71. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4983.2011.01118.x

Graf, J.  2012.  A new early Cretaceous coelacanth from Texas.  Historical Biology 24:  441-452.

Pracheil, B.M., M.A. Pegg, L.A. Powell, and G.E. Mestl.  2012.  Swimways:  protecting paddlefish through movement-centered management.  Fisheries 37:  449-457.

Wright, J., S.R. David, and T.J. Near. 2012. Gene trees, species trees, and morphology converge on a similar phylogeny of living gars (Actinopterygii: Holostei: Lepisosteidae), an ancient clade of ray-finned fishes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 63: 848-856.

Clay, T.A., M.D. Suchy, A.M. Ferrara, Q.C. Fontenot, and W. Lorio. 2011. Early growth and survival of larval alligator gar, Atractosteus spatula, reared on artificial floating feed with or without a live Artemia spp. supplement. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 42: 412-416.

Selected Earlier Publications

Cavin, L.  2010.  Diversity of Mesozoic semionotiform fishes and the origin of gars  (Lepisosteidae).  Naturwissenschaften 97:  1035-1040.

Fishbase, viewed December 2010.  Available:

Graham, J.B.  1997Air-breathing fishes:  evolution, diversity, and adaptation.  Academic Press.  Burlington, Massachusetts.

Grande, L.  2010.  An empirical synthetic pattern study of gars (Lepisosteiformes) and closely related species, based mostly on skeletal anatomy.  The resurrection of holostei.  American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists Special Publication 6:  i-x, 1-871; supplementary issue of Copeia 10: 2a.

Helfman, G.S., B.B. Collette, and D.E. Facey.  1997.  The diversity of fishes.  Blackwell Science.  Malden, Massachusetts.

Herrington, S.J., K.N. Hettiger, E.J. Heist, and D.B. Keeney.  2008.  Hybridization between longnose and alligator gars in captivity, with comments on possible gar hybridization in nature.  Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 137: 158-164.

Hocutt, C.H. and E.O. Wiley.  1986.  The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes.  John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Jorgensen, J.M., and J.Joss.  2010.  The biology of lungfishes.  Science Publishers.  Enfield, New Hampshire.

Nelson, J. S. 1994.  Fishes of the world, 3rd edition. Wiley, New York.

Page, L.M., and B.M. Burr.  2011.  A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes, 2nd edition.  Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

Suzuki, D., M.C. Brandley, and M. Tokita.  2010.  The mitochondrial phylogeny of an ancient lineage of ray-finned fishes (Polypteridae) with implications for the evolution of body elongation, pelvic fin loss, and craniofacial morphology of Osteichthyes.  BMC Evolutionary Biology 10:  21.  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-2.

Wiley, E.O. 1976. The phylogeny and biogeography of fossiland recent gars (Actinopterygii: Lepisosteidae). University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication 64:1-111.

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